J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Jun 6;66(22):5621-5634. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b02092. Epub 2018 May 29.
Dynamic Proteome Alteration and Functional Modulation of Human Saliva Induced by Dietary Chemosensory Stimuli.
Bader M, Dunkel A, Wenning M, Kohler B, Medard G, Del Castillo E, Gholami A, Kuster B, Scherer S, Hofmann T
Saliva flow measurements and SDS-PAGE separation of human whole saliva freshly collected after oral stimulation with citric acid (sour), aspartame (sweet), iso-α-acids (bitter), mono sodium l-glutamate (umami), NaCl (salty), 6-gingerol (pungent), hydroxy-α-sanshool (tingling), and hydroxy-β-sanshool (numbing), followed by tryptic digestion, nano-HPLC-MS/MS, and label-free protein quantitation demonstrated a stimulus- and time-dependent influence of the dietary chemosensates on salivation and the salivary proteome composition. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed evidence for stimulus-induced alterations of the saliva proteome to boot an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity, e.g., 6-gingerol increased salivary lactoperoxidase activity, catalyzing the oxidation of thiocyanate to produce the antimicrobial and antifungal hypothiocyanate, from 0.37 ± 0.02 to 0.91 ± 0.05 mU/mL 45 s after stimulation. In comparison, oral citric acid stimulation induced an increase of myeloperoxidase activity, catalyzing the chloride oxidation to generate antimicrobial hypochloride in saliva, from 0.24 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.1 mU/mL as well as an increase of salivary levels of lysozyme, exhibiting antimicrobial activity on Gram-positive bacteria, from 6.0-10 to 100-150 μg/mL. Finally, microbial growth experiments clearly demonstrated for the first time that the increase of the salivary lysozyme abundance upon oral citric acid stimulation translates into an enhanced biological function, that is an almost complete growth inhibition of the two lysozyme-sensitive Gram-positive bacteria tested.
lysozyme; proteomics; saliva; saliva enzymes; taste